Diverging ideals of autonomy: Non-state media in Cuba challenging a broken media monopoly

Anne Natvig

Abstract


News outlets funded by actors other than the state are broadening the range of movement for journalists in Cuba. How are these non-state outlets affecting ideals of autonomy in the state media? Through qualitative interviews, this study finds an emerging generational divide in Cuba between journalism students and journalists in state media. A majority of students want to work in non-state media because it means they can choose their own stories, have a more meaningful work day and earn more money. Most journalists are, on the other hand, sceptical of private businesses entering the media sector, and refer to the importance of ideology.


Keywords


Autonomy, Cuba, journalistic roles, journalism students, normative theory, state media

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alfonso HD (2014) Cuba: los nuevos campos de la oposición política [Cuba: The new arenas of the political opposition]. Real Instituto Elcano, 23 June. Available at: http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_es/contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/elcano_es/zonas_es/america+latina/ari30-dilla-cuba-nuevos-campos-oposicion-politica

Andresen K, Hoxha A & Godole J (2017) New roles for media in the Western Balkans. Journalism Studies 18(5): 614-28.

Benson R (2008) Journalism: Normative theories. In: Donsbach W (ed.) The International Encyclopedia of Communication. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2591-7.

Bryman A (2016) Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bye V (2017) Cuba's critical juncture: Main challenges. Iberoamericana - Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 46(1): 109-18.

Christians C, Glasser T, McQuail D, Nordenstreng K & White R (2009) Normative Theories of the Media. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Donsbach W & Patterson TE (2004) Political news journalists: Partisanship, professionalism, and political roles in five countries. In: Esser F & Pfetsch B (eds), Comparing Political Communication: Theories, Cases, and Challenges, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 251-70.

Elizalde RM (2013) El consenso de lo posible [The Consensus of the Possible]. Havana: University of Havana.

Estenoz YP & Martínez ST (2006) Eramos tan jovenes [We Were So Young]. Havana: University of Havana.

Freedom House (2016) Freedom of the press 2016. Freedom House. Available at: https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-press/2016/cuba.

Garcés R (2013) Siete tesis de la prensa cubana [Seven theses about the Cuban press]. Cubadebate 14 July. Available at: http://www.cubadebate.cu/opinion/2013/07/14/siete-tesis-sobre-la-prensa-cubana/#.Wb-Kj7KrRaQ.

Garcés R (2016) El desafío de la construcción de nuevos consensos [The challenge of building new consensuses]. Controversias y concurrencias latinoamericanas. Asociación Latinoamericana de Sociología. Received from author as PDF.

García ARE (2016). ¿Dónde están los jóvenes periodistas? [Where are the Young Journalists?]. Havana: University of Havana.

García L (2017) Díaz-Canel: 'Que digan que censuramos, todo el mundo censura' [Díaz-Canel: 'Whoever says that we censor, everybody censors']. Ciber Cuba 22 August. Available at: https://www.cibercuba.com/videos/noticias/2017-08-22-u177600-e177600-diaz-canel-digan-censuramos-aqui-todo-mundo-censura.

García Luis J (2013) Revolución, Socialismo, Periodismo. La prensa y los periodistas cubanos ante el siglo XXI [Revolution, Socialism, Journalism: Press and Journalists Facing the 21st Century]. Havana: Pablo de la Torriente.

García Santamaría SG (2017) The Historical Articulation of 'the People' in Revolutionary Cuba: Media Discourses of Unity in Times of National Debate (1990-2012). Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Granma (2018) Discurso de Díaz-Canel en la clausura del X Congreso de la UPEC [Speech by Diaz-Canel at the closing ceremony of the X Congress of the UPEC]. Available at: http://www.granma.cu/cuba/2018-07-15/discurso-de-diaz-canel-en-la-clausura-del-x-congreso-de-la-upec-15-07-2018-11-07-42.

Guldvik I (2002) Troverdighet på prøve [Credibility to the test]. Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning 43(1): 30-49.

Hallin DC & Mancini P (2004) Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hanitzsch T (2011) Populist disseminators, detached watchdogs, critical change agents and opportunist facilitators: Professional milieus, the journalistic field and autonomy in 18 countries. The International Communication Gazette 73(6): 477-94.

Hanitzsch T et al. (2011) Mapping journalism cultures across nations. Journalism Studies 12(3): 273-93.

Hanitzsch T et al. (2012) Journalistic cultures, professional autonomy and perceived influences across 18 nations. In: Willnat L & Weaver DH (eds), The Global Journalist in the 21st Century, New York: Routledge, 473-94.

Hanusch F & Uppal C (2015) Combining detached watchdog journalism with development ideals: An exploration of Fijian journalism culture. The International Communication Gazette 77(6): 557-76.

Henken TA (2017) Cuba's digital millennials: Independent digital media and civil society on the island of the disconnected. Social Research: An International Quarterly 84(2): 429-56.

Hoffmann B (2011) Civil Society 2.0? How the Internet Changes State-Society Relations in Authoritarian Regimes: The Case of Cuba. Hamburg: GIGA. Available at: http://www.icnl.org/research/library/files/Cuba/civsoccuba.pdf.

Hudson RA (2001) Cuba: A Country Study, Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

Josephi B (2017) Journalists for a young democracy. Journalism Studies 18(4): 495-510.

Krishna-Hensel SF (ed.) (2017) Media in Process: Transformation and Democratic Transition. London: Routledge.

Krueger RA & Casey MA (2009) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Marreiro F (2014) Continuity and Change in the Cuban Media under Raúl Castro. Oxford: University of Oxford.

Marrero J (2006) Congresos de periodistas cubanos [Cuban Journalist Congresses]. Havana: Pablo de la Torriente.

Matos C (2012) Media and Politics in Latin America: Globalization, Democracy and Identity. London: IB Tauris.

Mellado C (2015) Professional roles in news content. Journalism Studies 16(4): 596-614.

Mellado C, Márquez-Ramírez M, Mick J, Oller Alonso M & Olivera, D (2017) Journalistic performance in Latin America: A comparative study of professional roles in news content. Journalism 18(9): 1087-1106.

NESH (2016) Guidelines for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences, Humanities, Law and Theology. Etikkom. Available at: https://www.etikkom.no/globalassets/documents/english-publications/60127_fek_guidelines_nesh_digital_corr.pdf.

Nyamnjoh FB (2005) Africa's Media: Democracy and the Politics of Belonging, London: Zed Books.

Olivera D & Torres L (2017) Análisis del periodismo en Cuba: el predominio del rol profesional leal-facilitador de los periodistas en el contenido de las noticias de prensa [Analysis of journalism in Cuba: The predominance of the loyal facilitator role of journalists in the content of news articles]. In: Oller M (ed.), Cultura(s) Periodística(s) Iberoamericana(s): La diversidad de un periodismo propio. La Laguna (Tenerife): Sociedad Latina de Comunicación Social.

ONEI (2016a) Anuario de estadistica, 2016 [Annual Directory of Statistics, 2016]. Havana: National Office of Statistics and Information. Available at: http://www.one.cu/aec2016/17%20Tecnologias%20de%20la%20Informacion.pdf.

ONEI (2016b) Anuario Estadístico de Cuba 2016. Capítulo 7: empleo y salarios. Havana: National Office of Statistics and Information. Available at: http://www.one.cu/aec2016/07%20Empleo%20y%20Salarios.pdf.

Partido Communista de Cuba (PCC) (2018) Política de Comunicación Social del Estado y el Gobierno Cubanos. Available at: https://www.periodismodebarrio.org/2018/12/que-dice-la-nueva-politica-de-comunicacion-cubana.

Reuters (2019) Cuba da luz verde a legalización de WiFi privado y autoriza importación de equipamientos. [Cuba gives green light to legalization of private WiFi and authorizes import of equipment] May 29. Available at: https://lta.reuters.com/articulo/cuba-telecomunicaciones-internet-idLTAKCN1SZ2B5?il=0.

Reporters Without Borders (2018) Cuba: Continuing ordeal for independent media. Available at: https://rsf.org/en/cuba.

Siebert FS, Peterson T & Schramm W (1956) Four theories of the Press: The Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility and Soviet Communist Concept of What the Press Should Be and Do, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Tejkalová A et al. (2017) In media we trust. Journalism Studies 18(5): 629-44.

UNPAN (1992) Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, 1992. UNPAN. Available at: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan040545.pdf.

Voltmer K (2012) How far can media systems travel? Applying Hallin and Mancini's comparative framework outside the Western World. In: Hallin DC and Mancini P (eds), Comparing Media Systems Beyond the Western World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Voltmer K (2013) The Media in Transitional Democracies, Hoboken: Wiley.

Waisbord S (2012) Democracy, journalism, and Latin American populism. Journalism 14(4): 504-21.

Waisbord S (2013) Reinventing Professionalism: Journalism and News in Global Perspective, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Xiaoge X (2009) Development journalism. In: Wahl-Jorgensen K & Hanitzsch T (eds), The Handbook of Journalism Studies. New York: Routledge, 357-70.

Zhao Y (2012) Understanding China's media system in a world historical context. In: Hallin DC and Mancini P (eds), Comparing Media Systems Beyond the Western World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.